I was asked if one 501(c)(3) non-profit can give money to another 501(c)(3) charity. With the usual, and necessary, caveat of, “I am not attorney, nor am I giving legal advice,” I responded that, Yes, when the transaction advances the donor non-profit’s charitable mission, a non-profit can donate money (and other resources) to another non-profit.
In some instances doing so is an essential part of a non-profit carrying out its mission. Example: An orchestra could donate funds to an organization which seeks to develop overall marketing and PR education and outreach to that city’s arts and culture population.
Along with that necessary start to the process, the donor non-profit needs to make absolutely certain that there is:
- No conflict of interest. Any person or persons responsible for the transfer of the donated funds must not personally (their families, friends, associates, etc.) benefit in any way. Example: The donated funds are used to purchase equipment in some way connected to business interests of a Board member of the donor non-profit
- No violation of donor restrictions. While exacting restrictions are not generally connected to most donations, nevertheless, the risk is that some donors would not approve of their money, in principle, going to another charity they did not choose, no matter how it fits or how worthy.
- No misuse of the donated charitable resources by the receiving non-profit. Should the receiving non-profit subsequently have publicized financial problems, even though the donated funds were not in fact misused, the overall perception of the receiving organization trumps the reality. Perception is everything. There could be serious trouble for the donor non-profit requiring it to justify its support of the ailing organization.
- No question that donating funds in any way will imperil the donor non-profit’s own financial health. In other words, that the donation was not over the top, excessive, or out of the realm of good judgment.
Of course, there are always exceptions, and at times such arrangements can be mutual beneficial. But, from what I have mostly come to know, the donation-to-another-charity question is most often asked by people who hope the answer is “No” because they are unhappy about, or uncomfortable with, a proposed action of this type. I know I would be as director of development, especially when challenges are possible by my donors asking that I explain the above point 2. I would not want to risk hearing, “Not with my money, you won’t!”